Dangerfield's feats of brilliance overshadowed the strong performance of ex-Magpie Dale Thomas on debut for Carlton.
Adelaide won 1.13.12 (99) to Carlton's 0.9.7 (61).
Key forward Shaun McKernan kicked three goals for Adelaide while David Ellard booted three for the Blues.
Matthew Wright, Matthew Jaensch, Brodie Smith, Richard Douglas and Scott Thompson were among the main ball-winners for the Crows, while Sam Jacobs was strong in the ruck against Carlton's Matthew Kreuzer.
Marc Murphy had a game-high 30 touches for the Blues and Bryce Gibbs was also influential.
The 84kg Thomas finished with 18 disposals, taking a spectacular mark on the wing in the second term and launched himself into a heavy collision for the loose ball in following quarter.
Trailing by a point at the final change, Adelaide kicked six goals including a nine-pointer to Carlton's one goal in the last quarter.
The Blues had led by eight points at quarter-time, scoring two goals to Adelaide's one.
Both sides kicked three goals in the second term as the Blues retained an eight-point advantage.
In-form key defender Ben Rutten pushed forward to kick one of Adelaide's four third-term goals as the Crows narrowed the gap to one point at three-quarter time.
After a quiet first three quarters, acting captain Dangerfield unleashed a long bomb on the run for a nine-point goal as the Crows went 15 points ahead five minutes into the final term.
Two-time All-Australian Dangerfield was briefly off the field following a blow to the ribs but returned to snap a brilliant goal over his right shoulder to extend Adelaide's lead to 23 points as the visitors finished the better side.
Carlton, who had beaten North Melbourne by seven points in their opening pre-season game, were without Chris Judd (Achilles) and Andrew Carrazzo (calf) in midfield. Adelaide rested former Blues' forward Eddie Betts, who booted five in the Crows' 60-point win over Port Adelaide on February 16.
The Blues host Western Bulldogs in a practice match at Visy Park on March 7 and Adelaide will face Greater Western Sydney in Blacktown on the same day.
Thomas played five matches last season for Collingwood because of an ankle problem and missed Carlton's clash with the Kangaroos with a chest infection.
But the 2011 All-Australian looked in fine touch on Monday. Carlton coach Mick Malthouse was pleased to see Thomas, Kade Simpson, Heath Scotland, Michael Jamison, Jeff Garlett and Kreuzer get some valuable match conditioning.
"It was almost predictable that six of our players who had been out of action, coming back were never going to impact the last half," Malthouse said.
"The most important thing was that they got through."
Malthouse said Thomas "gave us a bit".
Adelaide coach Brenton Sanderson is expecting the Crows to field an almost full-strength side against GWS.
Key forward James Podsiadly was rested late in Monday's game with a bruised hip.
"We played McKernan some more minutes and he was fantastic," Sanderson said.
ADELAIDE 0.1.2 0.4.3 0.8.5 1.13.12 (99)
CARLTON 0.2.4 0.5.5 0.8.6 0.9.7 (61)
Nine pointers: Adelaide - Dangerfield. Carlton - Nil.
Goals: Adelaide - Jenkins 2; Otten, Rutten, Petrenko, Podsiadly, Porplyzia, Dangerfield, Douglas, Sloane. Carlton - Ellard 3; Everitt, Curnow, Garlett, Casboult, Menzel.
Best: Adelaide - Wright, Sloane, McKernan, Jacobs, Jaensch, Rutten, Douglas, Thompson. Carlton - Murphy, Ellard, Gibbs, Everitt, Thomas, Bell, Simpson.
Umpires: Chris Kamolins, Scott McPhee, Brendan Hosking.
Venue: Etihad Stadium.