With the score tied 2-2 in Saturday's preliminary round fixture, Fyodor Tyutin found the net for Russia with just under five minutes left.
But American referee Brad Meier and his Swedish counterpart Marcus Vinnerborg disallowed the goal, even though goaltender Jonathan Quick appeared to have knocked the net out of place with his skate.
TJ Oshie scored four goals in the shootout to lift the Americans to a 3-2 win in a nail-biting contest marking the latest chapter of the two giants' historic rivalry.
"Russia was robbed of victory in normal time," the correspondent for Sovietsky Sport said on Sunday. "And no one is going to convince me of the opposite.
"Yes, we are not playing well in the powerplay. Yes, we were twice saved by the magician (Pavel) Datsyuk. But we had beaten the Americans in the 55th minute."
The outspoken head of the Russian lower house of parliament's foreign affairs committee, Alexei Pushkov, went on a Twitter tirade.
"How can a referee from the US preside over the match with the US. The puck was in the goal! How pathetic! Fraud right in the eyes of the whole world! Disgusting!
"This is a stolen victory. Why was a US referee installed in this match and not a referee from Russia?"
But President Vladimir Putin, who was at the game, refused to be drawn into the controversy over the disallowed goal.
"Sport is sport. We will see," Putin said in comments posted on the Kremlin website. "I think the team played very well. And in my opinion had even more class.
"We will see. The main games are still ahead so we wish them well."