Kubiak got the sack less than 24 hours after the Texans fell 27-20 to Jacksonville, who haven't exactly set the NFL alight this season.
Kubiak had guided the Texans to back-to-back AFC South titles and a pair of playoff wins over the previous two seasons, but Houston currently own the league's worst record at 2-11.
Defensive coordinator Wade Phillips will guide the Texans for the final three games of the regular season.
Phillips had already assumed head coaching duties for one Texans game this season, when Kubiak missed the club's November 16 defeat at Arizona while recovering from what was described as a mini-stroke.
"We felt that a change was needed at the head coach position," Texans owner Bob McNair said. "Losing like this is just not acceptable and something we cannot tolerate."
The Texans put together the most successful run in franchise history just a year ago, going 12-4 during the regular season and beating Cincinnati in the AFC Wild Card Playoffs. Since an 2-0 start to the season injuries and instability at the quarter back position has seen their fortunes dive.