And the Tigers will hope that winning feeling also returns later this week in what looms as one of the most hotly contested races for Shield final spots.
Hilfenhaus backed up his stunning first-innings blitz of three wickets in four balls with another damaging burst in the Bulls' second dig on Sunday.
The ex-Test seamer was on a hat-trick for the second time in the match when he helped reduce Queensland to 4-8 chasing 307 for victory.
He took 4-33 - completing match figures of 8-117 - as Queensland were bowled out for 143 in their second innings late on the final day.
Despite fighting hands from Luke Pomersbach (61) and Nathan Reardon (46) in a 96-run fifth-wicket stand, the Bulls never recovered in a blow to their title defence.
Tasmania (24 points) jumped from dead-last to fourth on the Shield ladder - just two points outside the top two - while defending champions Queensland (24 points) are still in the mix with one game to play.
In the Shield regular-season finale, Tasmania host leaders Victoria and Queensland travel to third-ranked Western Australia from Thursday.
Dom Michael and Peter Forrest completed a pair for the match - the latter a golden - when they were again claimed by Hilfenhaus in consecutive balls as Queensland slumped to 3-8.
Alarm bells ringing for Queensland became a death knell when they were left reeling at 4-8 after first-innings centurion Joe Burns was run out at the non-striker's end for a duck in a mix-up with Pomersbach.
Earlier, the Tigers declared their second innings at 6-342 with James Faulkner not out 52 and Tim Paine unbeaten on 37.
Tasmania resumed on Sunday at 4-226 and quickly lost Alex Doolan (83) and Jon Wells (52) who shared a 92-run fifth wicket stand as they looked for quick runs.