After Australia scored 380 largely on the back of 133 from captain Michael Clarke, India got off to a shaky start in its first innings with James Pattinson bowling Murali Vijay for 10 and Virender Sehwag for two.
India was 2-12 when Sehwag was unluckily out and Tendulkar came to the wicket making an immediate statement hitting three of his first four deliveries for boundaries off Pattinson.
His partnership of 93 with Cheteshwar Pujara was ended when his partner was bowled by Pattinson for 44, but now Tendulkar has combined with Virat Kohli for another 77 to take India to 3-182 at stumps on the second day.
Tendulkar has looked relatively at ease at the wicket on his way to 71 with Kohli now also reaching his half-century to remain not out on 50.
Tendulkar's 71 is already his second highest Test score in more than 12 months and he is on track for his first five-day century since scoring 146 against South Africa in Cape Town in January 2011.
Pattinson has all three of India's wickets but has only bowled six overs. Off-spinner Nathan Lyon has not made an impact with 0-55 from his 14 overs.
Earlier, Australia was bowled out for 380 just on lunch with Clarke making 130 and Ravi Ashwin claiming 7-103.
Australia ended up doing well on the first day on the dusty wicket to recover from being in a degree of trouble at 5-153 when Matthew Wade got out, to be 7-316 at stumps with Clarke not out on 103 and Peter Siddle on one.
Clarke and Siddle then continued to fight hard throughout the first session of the second day combining for a 54-run stand in the end before Clarke was out for a superb 130 from 246 balls with 12 fours and a six.
Siddle went on to make 19 and Lyon three with Pattinson remaining not out on 15 with Australia ending up with 380.
Ashwin was the pick of the Indian bowlers with the Indian off-spinner taking 7-103 from 42 overs. Ravindra Jadeja took 2-71 from 36 overs and Harbhajan Singh 1-87 from 25.
On the opening day, Australia's openers Ed Cowan and David Warner got off to a good start taking advantage of the hard new ball to score 64 inside 15 overs before Cowan tried one too many big shots off Ashwin.
He was out for 29 and then Phil Hughes joined him soon after when he fell for six. Then when Shane Watson (28), Warner (59) and Wade (12) fell in quick succession, Australia were 5-153 but that's when Clarke and debutant all-rounder Moises Henriques came together.
The pair combined for a 151-stand before Henriques fell for 68 but he more than justified his selection in the team. Mitchell Starc then made just three, but Clarke and Siddle safely survived until stumps.
It wasn’t fast going throughout the first session on the second day, but Clarke continued to looked rock solid at the crease and Siddle defending everything to hang in there with him.
Clarke eventually fell to the bowling of Jadeja with the score 8-361 and Siddle followed soon after for 19 off 94 deliveries to become Harbhajan's only wicket of the innings.
Pattinson and Lyon then put on 16 for the last wicket before Lyon was out for three.