The gritty little left-hander manufactured a superb century in a virtual lone-hand resistance just two days after a stunning unbeaten 138 to save Australia from batting disaster against Sri Lanka in a one-day international at Hobart.
Hughes fell just before stumps for 120 on the second day of a crucial Sheffield Shield match at Adelaide Oval.
The next highest score to Hughes was a handy late-order 22 not out from seam bowling specialist Joe Mennie batting down at number nine.
At stumps SA was 8-239 and still 80 runs behind Victoria's first innings 319 after the gutsy Hughes was returning big quick James Pattinson's first scalp of the day with the second new ball.
Pattinson is in his comeback from a nasty side strain he suffered in the Adelaide Second Test against South Africa.
In a highly encouraging return, Pattinson finished with two late victims (2-36) from seemingly 12 untroubled overs spread across his first full day back in first-class duty.
It is Hughes second Shield ton this season since crossing from New South Wales to join the Redbacks.
The affable top-order specialist also made scores of 86 in his return innings to the highest level and 87 in the Third Test against Sri Lanka.
Hughes also created history early this month when he plundered a brilliant 112 from 129 balls in his one-day international debut to become the first Australian to ever achieve the feat in their inaugural limited-overs outing.
Hughes, 24, won back his Test top-order berth immediately after the retirement of champion batting great Ricky Ponting in December.
He led Australia's Shield run-making list with 518 at an average of 58 when re-called to the Australian top-order after a year in exile to rebuild a flawed technique.
Victoria was out for 319 when SA speedster Chadd Sayers snatched a career-best 6-49 to become the leading wicket-taker in this season's Shield competition.
Sayers has 28 Shield wickets at an average of 20.35, one more victim than Tasmanian and new Test speedster Jackson Bird.